Advertising: what is it + in simple words + types + functions + definition
What is advertising? Nowadays it is difficult to imagine the world around us without her presence.
It exists on television and radio, on the Internet, on the street, in transport, in large and small stores. It is almost impossible not to pay attention to it, it remains either to come to terms with this “engine of trade", or try to get income from it.
In this material, we will consider what advertising is, its history of origin, goals, types and functions. We will deal with the pros and cons of promotion, and what kind of promotion can be called unreliable, dishonest.
Definition of the term
Among the many definitions of what advertising is, two concepts stand out.
- The first is information about a specific product or service that is communicated to the consumer by various methods to attract the attention of the general public and popularize a particular object.
- The second is the most productive, pre-paid method of communicating marketer-designed information to the consumer.
Simply put, advertising is information that is directed to attract customers. Although advertisers claim that this is a certain kind of activity.
Each of these statements can be called correct. This type of activity reinforces consumer interest in the product and helps to keep and promote it in the market.
Classic advertising objects are:
- product or commodity;
- the manufacturer of the goods;
- trade worker selling products;
- work of intellectual labor;
- any event: concert, competition, and so on;
- commercial event.
The advent of advertising
Having roughly analyzed what advertising is in terms of terminology, let’s talk about its origin. It appeared in the distant times of trade and market relations, before the emergence of money.
The first promoters were sellers in the market, who invited people to buy goods from them. The term "advertising" itself originates from the Latin word "reclamare", which means "to shout out".
The proof of its existence is considered to be a papyrus found during excavations by archaeologists with a proposal to purchase a slave.
The very concept of what advertising is, at the present time, stems from the invention of the first printing press. This allowed the text promotion to begin its journey. Directly numerous ways of communication have allowed advertising to promote trade productively.
Main functions and goals of advertising
The main function of advertising is to increase income from the sale of a product or service. A properly organized promotion campaign keeps the public interested in the product for a long time. In addition, there is a promotion of a certain brand and attraction of a new audience.
There are also secondary purposes of advertising :
- increasing demand for a product or service;
- creation of an approving reputation among the consumer audience;
- maintaining market positions;
- search for new methods of high turnover of products;
- popularization of information about the purchasing qualities of the goods.
Many believe that without this engine of trade it would be much better and consider it in vain. However, the functions of advertising are quite important. With its help, it is possible to notify the consumer about any service or product.
It also forms a positive perception of a particular company and encourages people to take certain actions: purchase products, order a service. Virtuoso promotion develops in the buyer the habit of using products of a certain brand.
Varieties of advertising: the original goal
Having roughly understood what advertising is, let’s talk about its varieties. Depending on the placement, method of distribution of the goal, there are different types of advertising. Let’s consider each of them in more detail.
Based on the original goal, then promotion can be divided into the following types.
- Social. Its focus is to achieve one or another important charitable or social goal. For example, it is possible to take commercials about the dangers of alcohol abuse. Or an informational video about orphanages that helps kids find a new family.
- Commercial. This is the same promotion that is everywhere around us. Information is communicated to a potential consumer of goods or a customer of services for the further purchase of products. For example, a banner or video on the Internet advertising bank services. You may be interested in the information and offers depicted on it, and in the future you will put a certain amount on a deposit there, or take a loan.
- Political. This is an ordinary election campaign. Its goal is to push the voter to vote for a certain candidate.
Below we will consider the types of advertising depending on the placement. Let’s dwell on each of them in detail.
What is outdoor advertising, features, pros and cons
Probably, there is no need to explain what advertising outside the closed space or outdoor promotion is. It is carefully calculated for human visual perception. These are: billboards, electronic tabloids, pedestals, poster stands and so on.
Productive, qualitatively fulfilling the goals of advertising is considered to be one that holds at least 1 second of human attention. Therefore, billboards are always colorful and memorable, often contain interesting concise slogans and a maximum of useful information.
- large target audience;
- fairly affordable price;
- the client pays once and gets the effect for a certain time;
- a wide range of options for placing advertising material.
There are far fewer cons. These include weather events: rain, snow, strong winds that can damage the content, and a limited resource that does not allow you to present all the information.
What is media advertising
The media include such resources as: television, radio, magazines and newspapers. This is one of the main areas of influence on the human minds of marketers and advertisers. After all, everyone uses the media. For example, if you don’t watch TV, you probably read newspapers or turn on the radio at home or in your car.
Let’s talk about TV, because even a child knows what advertising on television is. Before the Internet, television commercials were the main means of promotion and sale of goods. It creates the appearance of two-way communication with the client. Therefore, the time at which advertising content is posted costs a lot and often takes the bulk of the company’s budget for promotion.
- the largest scale of CA;
- influence on the viewer with the help of sound and optical effects;
- a rich choice among a variety of effects that stimulate one or another action;
- possibility of psychological influence on human consciousness.
Of the minuses, we note the rather considerable cost of such promotion and the negative attitude of some viewers to commercials.
What is internet advertising
Due to the relatively recent emergence of the worldwide web, this type of advertising is quite young. In our time of technology, this is the most advanced and constantly developing direction in such an industry as marketing.
With a fairly inexpensive cost, this type of advertising covers the maximum audience of users. To make it clearer what advertising on the Internet is, we note the primary types of promotion on the network:
- native – completely in harmony with the theme of a particular site, practically does not cause negativity, the user may not even understand that something has just been advertised to him;
- viral – a kind of recommendation from other users who have already purchased a product or service and advise others, often such advertising content is free ;
- contextual – completely matching the theme of the site you are on;
- targeted – aimed at a specific target audience, often and productively used in social networks, for example, ads for women’s clothing will come across to the beautiful half of humanity aged 18 to 55;
There is no need to explain what a printed advertisement is. Everyone is familiar with leaflets, catalogs, business cards, booklets and so on. This method of promotion is also quite effective. Many consumers prefer printed information because it is possible to hold it in their hands and keep it with them.
In fact, the printing industry has a huge opportunity to create realistic, vivid images that increase the turnover of products at times.
As an illustrative example of what advertising printed on paper is, let’s take leaflets and booklets with supermarket promotions. They usually offer small newspapers at the checkout with upcoming great deals for shoppers to look at at home and make a shopping list.
What is direct advertising
Direct promotion refers to information transmitted directly through contact without intermediaries orally or in writing. Such transfer of information takes place not only in a personal format, but also remotely, for example, by phone, mail, via the Internet.
Many consumers are familiar with this type of advertising. These are messages on social networks, by e-mail, through various instant messengers.
The main distinguishing feature of this promotion is that the advertiser addresses the potential buyer directly. This is the most personal variation of commercial advertising, which often works effectively, which means that the goals of advertising have been achieved.
As an example, consider numerous calls from call centers offering a particular banking service. This annoys some, but many willingly enter into a conversation and even agree to take out a loan or put money at interest.
What is advertising on vehicles
Now let’s look at what is advertising on transport, and what is its essence. Such promotion happens in the form of text, graphics, and so on. It is placed inside or outside the vehicle. The advertiser occupies the entire transport or any part.
Taking into account the types of advertising, it is rather possible to define this promotion to a variety outside the closed space. However, it moves, unlike the stationary outdoor one. This allows you to reach a much larger target audience.
The main advantage of such advertising is an impressive level of exposure. During a trip in transport, the eye often clings to promotional images, able to capture the attention of the consumer for a long time. Such promotion must be memorable: bright, colorful, concise and creative, then the main functions of advertising can be called fulfilled.
What is advertising on souvenirs
One of the productive ways of product promotion is advertising on souvenirs. What is branding advertising? This type of promotion is familiar to people who have attended all kinds of PR campaigns and presentations. As a gift for his visit, a person receives an inexpensive trinket: a pen, a flashlight, a baseball cap, and so on. The presentation, as a rule, shows the logo of the inviting company, its slogan or motto.
A gratuitous gift shows the consumer the advertiser’s positive disposition, his benevolence. Such types of advertising as branding work especially if the brand is already popular. Its urgency seems to remain unchanged for many years to come.
We have practically dismantled what advertising is, but what is hidden promotion, let’s talk in more detail. Any person decides for himself whether to view advertising content or not. After all, it is enough to turn off the TV, close the newspaper, go to another resource, and the like.
However, sometimes advertising is hidden, and the consumer does not even realize that he is being offered something. There are many ways to influence the future target audience, both consciously and with psychological pressure. So what is advertising camouflaged from the consumer?
This promotion indirectly affects the subconscious of the buyer, causing him to desire to purchase products or order a service. Hidden promotion often hides under the guise of advice or recommendation, ordinary vital or enlightening information.
For example, storytelling is considered a method of such promotion. There is a narrative, usually fictional, from the life of a certain person, at the end of which consumers are gently led to the need to purchase a specific product or service.
Positive and negative features of advertising
Almost all activities have their positive and negative qualities. What is advertising on the positive side, let’s take a closer look at the points:
- helps enterprises to increase turnover and, as a result, profit;
- social promotion contributes to the achievement of socially beneficial and noble goals;
- motivates a person to dream about something, which means to achieve more;
- advertising of a political nature informs a potential voter;
- allows people to learn new things, to improve themselves.
What is negative advertising? It pushes the consumer to rash acts, which increases the demand for products and allows the manufacturer to increase its cost. It is often quite annoying. The cost of an advertising campaign is included in the price of goods by manufacturers, due to which tariffs and prices increase.
Dishonest and unreliable promotion
The legislation states that an advertising company must be honest and contain truthful information. Let’s take a look at what advertising is, which cannot be called honest and reliable:
- exposing in a bad light the honor and reputation of another person or company, often this is done with competitors;
- promotion of information, the promotion of which is prohibited at the legislative level;
- advertising one product under the guise of another, this also applies to imitation of trade brands;
- provided that the promoted product/ service is the result of unfair competition, and this is proved by the antimonopoly legislation;
- promotion of information that presents the superiority of one product over another;
- false information about the results of research, testing, receiving all kinds of awards and the like.
It is also impossible to use state symbols in the promotion: flag, coat of arms, anthem.
How to advertise effectively
What is an advertisement competently and correctly filed by the target audience? This is a practice that brings maximum benefits, increases turnover, attracts new customers and sales areas. Modern marketing is much more creative, often preferring a non-standard approach. It is possible to call such a viral promotion.
Here are a few basic steps in the correct formation of advertising promotion:
- formulate the main goals of promotion;
- decide on a budget;
- to accept the plan, the concept of the campaign, advertising agencies will help you with this;
- develop a promotion scheme with the definition of time intervals, volumes and pricing policy;
- sum up the campaign, conduct an objective assessment of effectiveness.
It works productively to demonstrate the product in action at all kinds of presentations, where people paw, try products, and watch what is happening directly. Also, the method of selling one product enclosed within another proved to be effective. The most productive example of this type of advertising is Kinder Surprise, which has been a leader in its segment for several decades.
Drafting an advertising project for the company
Having analyzed what advertising is in all its manifestations and how to effectively promote products, let’s take a closer look at planning an advertising campaign. When drafting a future promotion, business volumes and budget reserves for promotion matter. Also, do not forget about the position in the consumer market, the age of the company and the characteristics of the target audience. Correctly planned advertising will be heard and viewed by the maximum part of the target audience.
What is an advertisement that is planned correctly? It will be seen by a consumer belonging to the category of the target audience, at a certain time, in the right place, the number of times required by the advertiser.
Here are the main principles of the advertising campaign project:
- coverage of the necessary target audience;
- required number of contacts;
- a guarantee of a sufficient number of advertising outlets during the campaign;
- superiority in the chosen means of communication, for example, on a certain TV channel or website.
Now they are trying to reveal the topic: “What is advertising” as deeply as possible and even teach in higher educational institutions.
In order for advertising to fulfill its direct functions, be effective and productive, it must be created for the consumer, in his particular world, taking into account all needs and requirements.
In this article, we have analyzed in great detail what advertising is. We decided that this is a transfer of information to a potential consumer paid by the advertiser. However, it must be not only recognizable and memorable, but also work for the future image and reputation of the company. Effective advertising is unobtrusive, timely, and right on target.
Now you not only know what advertising is, but also understand its varieties, tasks and goals. In any case, promotion of the company for the sake of increasing turnover and searching for new markets cannot be imagined without advertising. This means that this area will only grow, bringing in multi-billion dollar profits every year.